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Categories Of Advertisements

Categories of Advertisements

Major factors to consider when preparing an advertisement are its creativity,  continuity with past advertisements and possible association with other company products.  The different types of product advertising are as follows:

  • Informative Product Advertising – This type of advertising seeks to develop demand through presenting factual information on the attributes of a product or service.  For example, “More Americans use our cleaning product than any other cleaning product.” 
  • Persuasive     Product Advertising – Such advertising emphasizes using words or images     to try to create an image for a product and to influence attitudes about     it.  For example, “You have to try     it to experience the great taste….”
  • Reminder-Oriented     Product Advertising – The goal of this type of advertising is to

reinforce previous promotional activity by keeping the product or service name in front of the public. 

  • Retail Advertising or Cooperative advertising - is the sharing of advertising costs between the retailer and the manufacturer.  For example, “Karastan Carpets sold at Tom’s Carpet Place…”
  • Institutional advertising – is concerned with promoting a concept, idea, philosophy, or the goodwill of an industry, company, or organization. For example, “McDonald’s is the proud sponsor of The Ronald McDonald House…”
  • Comparative Advertising - makes direct promotional comparisons with competitive brands.  For example, “Nike cross trainers are 20% more durable than Reebok…”

Message Appeals

Structure – The ad’s structure should contribute to attracting customer’s attention.  For example, by using bold headlines, color or sound effects.

Humor,  Sex, and Fear are used in advertising messages.   These may be difficult to use effectively as they should not detract from the central message.  Also, society can be sensitive at times when sex is used to sell products.

Source Factor Credibility

As discussed previously, the source has to be credible and believable. 

  • Celebrity marketing involves having celebrities lend their name and influence to the promotion of a product.  These celebrities have to be likable and easy for people to identify with.
  • Role model marketing associates a product with the positive perception of a type of individual or a role.
  • Buzz Marketing is giving a significant person in a social system a product to use in the hope that others will see it and want to buy the product.

Sales Promotion (Non-Personal Selling Processes)

Sales promotion consists of activities that focus on stimulating consumer purchasing at the point of sale and improving dealer effectiveness.   These are all non-personal selling processes.

Point of Purchase Advertising includes displays and demonstrations that seek to promote the product at a time and place closely associated with the actual decision to buy.

Specialty Advertising is a sales promotion medium that uses useful articles to carry the advertiser’s names, address, and advertising message to reach target customers.

Other – This category contains samples, coupons, premiums, deals, rebates, and loyalty programs.

  • A sample is a free item given in an attempt to obtain consumer acceptance.
  • Coupons offer a discount, usually some specified price reduction, on the next purchase of a product.
  • Premiums are bonus items given free with the purchase of another product.
  • Deals are price reductions designed to encourage trial of a product, to counteract a competitor’s promotion or to encourage retailers to stock the product.
  • Rebates encourage consumers to purchase and induce channel members loyalty to a manufacturer.
  • Loyalty programs stimulate repeat purchases by providing rewards such as points toward products or free air miles with each purchase.

Public Relations and Publicity

Public relations is the component of marketing communications that focuses on fostering goodwill between a company and its various publics.

Publicity is normally unpaid communication that disseminates positive information about company activities and products.  The advantages are:

  • Greater credibility
  • Speed of coverage
  • Generation of great public interest

Some disadvantages include:

  • No control over execution
  • No control over timing

Sales Process (Personal Selling Process)

There are seven steps to the sales process.   Personal selling is when a seller deals directly, face to face, with a potential buyer or customer.  The seven steps are as follows:

  In Prospecting, the seller needs to find potential customers.  Not everyone will be a candidate to purchase the product.  That is why narrowing down the target market is very important.   Once a seller finds prospects for his product, he can then start the next process. 

  In the Approach process, it is important for the seller to approach the person with purchasing power.  For example, if a person is selling cleaning products, a potential customer would be office buildings.  Once he approaches a business, he then has to make sure to talk to the right person.  For example, it would not make sense to try and sell the receptionist the cleaning supplies, as he/she has no purchasing power.  Instead, a more likely candidate would be the manager of the cleaning department.

  In this section, the salesperson makes the formal presentation or pitch to the client.  In the case of the cleaning supply, this may include a brief history of the product, who uses the product,  what it does, and pricing.

  In this section, the salesperson actually demonstrates how well the cleaning supply cleans the floors of the office.

Handling Objections
  In this section, the salesperson will handle any negativity or objections about the product.  The salesperson will try and put a positive spin on the conversation to be able to move on to the next step.

  Closing the deal is when the salesperson secures an order.

In this section, the salesperson follows up with the client to make sure that they are satisfied with the product and that everything is working out well, and to try and secure a future order. 

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