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Applying Holland’s Theory

Applying Holland’s Theory

Holland uses a couple of inventories, such as the Self-Directed Search (SDS) and the Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI). The SDS is accompanied with an Occupations Finder and an assessment booklet that aid in the identification of personality types. When using Holland’s theory, it is best to begin with the SDS so that the proper types can be identified and the proper summary code can be discovered. The summary code is the determination of the three closest personality types. From this point, the counselor must identify difficulties and aid the client in working through these problems, so that he or she can arrive at the best career conclusion. After these potential problems are examined, the client should work toward learning more about prospective occupations. The client is then ready to take the VPI, which will gauge their occupational awareness. Additional inventories can be considered, such as My Vocational Situation, which includes a category called Occupation Information. Occupation Information identifies the client’s need for more occupational education. Once these inventories have been used, it is time to consider the Position Classification Inventory, which classifies specific work environments. At this juncture, the counselor and client should have a solid idea of the best possible career options, and the vocational identity should be reached.

Evaluating Holland’s Theory

Holland’s theory has reaped the benefit of a great deal of research. One of the theory’s bright spots is its ability to relate to both the personality type of the client and the environment in which the client lives. The majority of the research on this theory focuses on the constructs and specifically on the construct of congruency. Along with the constructs, attention has been given to the personality aspect of the theory. Studies have shown that Holland’s argument that a person’s SDS scores will remain stable over an elongated period of time have proven true. Thus, the fundamental feature of this theory has proven dependable.

Learning Theory of Career Counseling (LTCC)

John Krumboltz

John Krumboltz, with the help of colleagues, constructed a theory that addresses both career choice and career counseling. The first aspect of the theory is labeled the Social Learning Theory of Career Decision Making (SLTCDM), and the second aspect is labeled the Learning Theory of Career Counseling (LTCC). Krumboltz combined both aspects and labeled the entire theory the Learning Theory of Career Counseling (LTCC), because this title encompassed both the issues of decision-making and counseling. Krumboltz based much of LTCC on Bandura’s theories of behaviorism and cognition.

Lesson References

Gottfredson, L. S. (2007, November 6). Review of literature. Retrieved July 31, 2008, from

Brown, D. (2002). The role of work values and cultural values in occupational choice,
satisfaction, and success: A theoretical statement. In D. Brown & Associates (Eds.), Career choice and development (4th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Gottfredson, L. S. (2002). Gottfredson’s theory of circumscription, compromise, and
self-creation. In D. Brown & Associates (Eds.), Career choice and development (4th ed.) San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D., & Hackett, G. (2002). Social cognitive career theory. In D. Brown & Associates (Eds.), Career choice and development (4th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Maccoby, M., & Terzi, K. (1981). What happened to the work ethic? In J. O’Toole, J. L. Scheiber, & L. C. Wood (Eds.), Working, changes, and choices. New York: Human Sciences Press.

Niles, S. G., & Harris-Bowlsbey, J. (2005). Career Development interventions in the
21st century (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Savickas, M. L. (1993). Predictive validity criteria for career development measures.
Journal of Career Assessment, 1, 93-104.

Savickas, M. L. (2002). Career construction: A developmental theory of vocational
behavior. In D. Brown & Associates (Eds.), Career choice and development (4th ed.) San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.


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